For example:. Question benevolence, in others and in oneself. Question the origin of intentions, in others and in oneself. Everyone deserves respect, and everyone deserves to be suspected of working for their own ends first.
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The powerless are saintly only until they have the power to be otherwise. We should come together as equally important, and equally self-interested, humans — with no nation, organization, or individual claiming ultimate wisdom or higher truth — or worse more benevolent intentions. With something as important and dangerous as the trajectory of intelligence itself, it behooves us to enter international discourse knowing what we are. The constitution of the United States put in place checks and balances to endure the inherent selfishness and amorality of leaders and people.
Not because all people should be considered evil, but because they should be considered to be motivated by their own aims, and that the aims and wellbeing of others must be protected in the process.
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Expecting humans to arrive at some kind of shared vision of the future, or shared definition of virtue, would be absurd. Expecting any individual, organization, or nation, to act outside of their own best interest would be absurd. A shared understanding of — endurance of — and even sympathy of our shared amoral nature seems a requisite starting point for global governance of any kind. Some groups will believe their own national self-interest to be most important.
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Some people attribute no moral weight to non-human animals — or less weight to woman than to men. Traits that will only become increasingly more valuable as the greatest governance and technology concerns become global, not provincial.
When I read modern thinkers on the topics of nature of man and the human condition, I tend to resonate most with those who strive for the middle passage that Montaigne walks in. According to Al-Rodhan, these five amoral, selfish drives are at the heart of our actions and intentions.
From my interview with Nayef from over four years ago:.
Emerson's 'Montaigne; or, the Skeptic:' Biography as Autobiography
My view of human nature is actually the foundation of my outlook — to me, man is an emotional, amoral, egoist…it turns out that our moral compass is governed primarily by our perceived emotional self interest, and the perception bit is just as important as reality. These works engender more skepticism than certainty. Reading Elephant in the Mind or the 5 Ps make one question their own certainties and virtues — and those of others.
Montaigne might be seen as one of many authors who stand as skeptics on the topic of virtue. Montaigne was keenly aware of how much of a buffoon one can look like who ties themselves to a certainty. Sign in Create an account. Syntax Advanced Search. About us. Editorial team. Emiliano Ferrari. Paris: Hermann. This study aims to highlight some major aspects of Emersonian skepticism while at the same time showing their deep links with the philosophy of Montaigne. French Philosophy in European Philosophy.
History of Western Philosophy, Misc.
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- The Enduring Wisdom of Montaigne.
Michel de Montaigne in Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy. Ralph Waldo Emerson in 19th Century Philosophy. Edit this record. Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index. Translate to english. Revision history.
"Skeptic is a dancer on the air rope : Emerson, Montaigne et le scepticisme sage"
This entry has no external links. He writes a great deal about the tyranny of laws but nothing about his fourteen years as a magistrate or his four years as a mayor, or even about his response, as mayor, to the plague that struck Bordeaux toward the end of his second term, leaving a third of the population dead. He fled. Montaigne, at the time, was thirty-two and, he says, ready to be a dutiful and respectful husband. As for his mother, he alludes to her twice, but only in passing. Her name was Antoinette Louppes de Villeneuve.
She came from a far-flung merchant clan, similar to the Montaignes in wealth and influence, but with the notable exception that, while the Montaignes were then solidly and safely Catholic, some of the Louppes were Protestant, and the family themselves were Sephardic conversos from Saragossa, where their name was Lopez de Villanueva. She arrived at the castle a reluctant bride of sixteen, to marry Pierre Eyquem, an eccentric but apparently exemplary chatelain and a future mayor of Bordeaux himself , and, once having settled her duty to her children by bearing them, she was attached mainly to herself.
For him, the subject of Protestants and Jews who had been barred from practicing their religion in France since the end of the fourteenth century seems to have been, at most, food for his meditations on the absurdities of persecution and the fatal distractions of disharmony. But, when it came to seeing an old Jew herded naked through the streets of Rome, he remained a reporter—curious, compassionate, but not particularly disturbed. He did not expect much better from the world. Relatives, to his mind, were accidents of birth, consideration, and proximity. The genealogy that interested him was the genealogy of thought.
He was far more interested in thinking about religion with the Sophists and Skeptics in his library than he was in the part that religion, even his own Catholicism, played in him. For all that, he was a passionate traveller. His search for the spa that would cure his kidney stones—the disease had killed his father and would eventually help kill him—took him to Switzerland, Austria, and Germany. His love of the classics took him to Italy. He prowled the ghetto, visiting a synagogue, watching a circumcision, and happily cross-examining the rabbi.
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By the end of his visit he had met the Pope and was made an honorary Roman citizen. Today, we would call him a gentleman ethnographer, more enchanted than alarmed by the bewildering variety of human practices. The only things I find rewarding if anything is are variety and the enjoyment of diversity. When did we ever write so much as since the beginning of our Civil Wars?
And whenever did the Romans do so as just before their collapse? The words I utter when wretched are words of defiance. It is difficult to found a judgment on him which is steady and uniform. Now, in a way, he both honors and discards them, along with their cluttering truths, their most congenial wisdom, and the deceptive comfort they sometimes bring.